The name of this town was originally Chinna Balaporum. Originating from either Tamil or Telugu for Chinna meaning small while “balla” means the measure to quantify food grains, and “pura” means “town”. According to a popular legend, the Marigowda, the son of the chief Avathimalla Biregowda, was hunting one day in the Kodimanchanahalli forest. He found a rabbit standing fearlessly in front of hunting dogs. Excited by this, the chief told his son that it eas a sign of the boldness of the local people. So, he obtained permission from the king of Vijayanagara and built a fort and a town. This in course of time developed into the town of Chickballapur.
During the rule of Baichegowda, the king of Mysore attacked the fort but had to withdraw due to the interference of Marathas. Dodda Byregowda, who came to power after Baichegowda, resumed control of the territories seized earlier by Mysore. In 1762, during the rule of Chikkappanayaka, Hyder Ali laid siege the town for a period of three months. Then Chikkappanayaka agreed to pay 5-lakhs pagodas, and the army was withdrawn. After this, Chikkappa Nayaka with the help of Murariraya of Gooty tried to get back his powers. He was hiding at Nandi hills along with Chikkappa Nayaka. Immediately Hyder Ali took Chickballapur and other places and arrested Chikkappa Nayaka. Then with interfere of Lord Cornwallis, Chickballapur was handed over to Narayanagowda. Some sources suggest that lord cornvallis visited the temple of shiva in peresandra which is 18 km off of chikkaballapur. In few references british text suggest that peresandra has a tremendous history After knowing this, Tipu Sultan again acquired Chikballapur.
In 1791 British occupied Nandi & left Narayanagowda to rule the town. Due to this fight between Britishers and Tipu Sultan again started. Narayanagowda lost his administration. Later on the British defeated Tipu Sultan. Chickballapur also came under the administration of Wodeyars of Mysore, which is now a part of Karnataka.